Monday, March 11, 2013

KBP - Chapter 2

Review Questions

2. Its mixed one-dimensional and two-dimensional layout, which has puzzled many readers of the original document.
3. Plankalkul means "plan kalkulus" which means "formal system for planning".
5. The num of bits in a single word of the UNIVAC I's memory is 72 bits, and grouped as 12 six-bit bytes.
7.The speedcoding system developed by John Backus for the IBM 701.
8.The shortcode was developed by John Mauchly in 1949. Shortcode called automatic programming because it was implemented with a pure interpreter, not translated to machine code.
10. The most significant feature added to Fortran I to get Fortran II is Independent-compilation capability.
11. Logical loop statements and IF with an optional ELSE were added to Fortarn IV to get Fortran 77.
12. Fortran 90 was the first to have any sort of dynamic variables.
13. FOrtran 77 was the first to have character string handling.
16. Common LISP allows for static scoping and dynamic scoping, Scheme only uses static scooping. Scheme is relatively small while Common LISP is large and complex.
17. Scheme dialect is used to intriductory programming courses at some universities.
18. Two professional organizations together designed ALGOL 60 were ACM and GAMM.
20. Algol 58 introduced code blocks and the begin and end pairs for delimiting them, Algol 60 was the first language that implementing nested functions definitions with lexical scope.
21. BNF language was designed to describe the syntax of ALGOL 60.
22. On flow-matic language was COBOL based.
46. The primary application for Objectives-C is MacOS/iOS - iPhone.
49. A programming language for embedded consumer electronic devices was the first application for Java.

Problem Set

1. Logical data type and logical boolean expression, with this, we can create simple version of the complex compile, and link processes of earlier compilers.
6. Undefined escape sequences in literal strings. The backslash character can be used in literal strings and characters:
    - to escape various characters
    - to introduce an escape sequence representing a character
8. First, it is an interpreter type of language and focused on ease of use at the expense of system resources. Second, the running-time of a program that was written with the help of Speedcoding was usually ten to twenty times that of machine code.
7. Because that language continue to evolve from time to time.
9. It is to shorten the initialization of a variable.
12. Procedural programming is a classic programming where the program language is used to tell the computer exactly what to do, step by step. Non-procedural programming is where you tell the computer what you want, then the computer figures out how to get it. The incorporation of procedural and non-procedural features is used to overcome the lack of computer's knowledge to figure out some procedures by itself efficiently.
13. The reasons why C is more popular than Fortran are C is very broad in scope and C is very common in commercial world.
15. Yes, they are  : 

    - Fortran
    - C++
    - COBOL
    - Algol

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